Phepompe

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Phepompe
PhepompeLenti la mmala wa numune—ke lenti la temošo la malnutrition.
Lenti la mmala wa numune—ke lenti la temošo la malnutrition.
Tlhopho le didirišwa tša ka ntle
ICD/CIM-9263.9 263.9
MedlinePlus000404

Phepompe goba go se je dijo tša phepo ke maemo ao a bakwago ke go ja dijo tše di se nago phepo goba tša phepo e ntši kudu tša go baka mathata a maphelo.[1][2] Diphepo tše di amegago di ka akaretša: dikalori, protine, dikhapohaetrete, divitamine goba mathomo tša phepo.[2] Gape e fela e dirišwa go šupetša phepo ya tlase moo go se nago dikalori tše dintši, diprotine goba diphepo tša dimaekro; le ge go le bjalo, gape e akaretša phepofetišo.[3][4] Ge phepo ya tlase e ka direga ka boimana goba pele ga mengwaga ye mebedi e ka baka mathata a go ya go ile a kgodišo ya mmele le monagano.[2] Phepo ya tlase ya go fetelela, ya go tsebagala ka tlala, e ka ba le dišupo tša go akaretša: bokgopana, mmele o mo sese, maemo a go fokola ga enetši, le maoto a go ruruga le dimpa.[2][3] Gantši batho ba fela ba hwetša diphetetšo gape kgafetša kgafetša ba tsenwa ke hypothermia. Dišupo tša ditlhaelo tša diphepo tša dimaekro di botagetše go diphepho tša dimaekro tše ditlhaelago.[3]

Phepo ya tlase gantši e bakwa ke go hloka go ja dijo tša phepo e botse.[5] Se gantši se nyalelana le theko ya godimo ya dijo le bohloki.[2][5] Go se nyantšhe letswele go ka oketša, bjale ka palo ya malwetši a phetelo go swana le: letšhologo, nyumonia, malaria le mooko tše di oketšago dinyakwa tša phepo.[5] Go na le mehuta ye mebedi ya phepo ya tlase: phepompe ya protine-enetši le ditlhaelo tša phepho.[4] Phepompe ya protine-enetši e na le mehuta ye mebedi e šoro: marasmase (tlhokego ya protine le dikalori) le kwašiokoro (tlhokego ya protine fela).[3] Ditlhaelo tša phepo ya maekro tše tlwaelegilego di akaretša: tlhokego ya madi, iodine le vitamine A.[3] Ka nako ya boimana, ka ge e nyakega kudu, tlhaelo e tlwaelegile.[6] Go dinaga tše di tšwetšwago pele phepofetišo ya mohuta wa gonona e thoma go tšwelela bjalo ka phepo ya tlase.[7] Mabaka a mangwe a go baka phepompe a akaretša anorexia nervosa (go itima dijo) le puo ya bariatric.[8][9] Go batšofe phepompe e tlwaelegile ka lebaka la maemo a popego, saekholotši le leago.[10]

Maiteko a go kaonafatša phepo ke amangwe a mehuta e kaone ya thušo ya tšwelelo.[11] Go nyantšha go ka fokotša palo ya phepompe le mahu a bana,[2] gape maiteko a go tšweletša palo ya godimo ya tlwaetšo.[12] Go bana ba bannyane go fa dijo le tlaleletšo ya go nyantšha magarenga ga dikgwedi tše tshela le mengwaga ye mebedi go kaonafatša dipoelo.[12] Gape go na le bohlatse bjo bo botse bja go thekga koketšo ya palo ya diphepo tša dimaekro ka boimana le magareng ga bana mafaseng a go tšwetšwa pele.[12] Go fihliša dijo go batho bao ba di nyakago kudu ka thomelo ya dijo le tšhelete gore ba kgone go reka dijo mebarakeng ya kgauswi go kaone.[11][13] Go fana ka dijo dikolong ga go thuše kudu.[11] Taolo ya phepompe e šoro legaeng la motho ka dijo tša terapi tše-di beakantšwego-Go ka dirišwa gantši go a kgonagala.[12] Go batho bao ba nago le phepompe e šoro yeo e bakilwego ke mathata a mangwe a maphelo ka fao kalafo ya bookelo e a eletšwa.[12] Gantši se se akaretša taolo ya swikiri e tlase mading, themperetšha ya mmele, go felelwa ke meetse mmeleng, le go ja ga nnyane ga nnyane.[12][14] Mokgwa wa ka mehla wa di-antibiotiki gantši o a eletšwa ka lebaka la kotsi e kgolo ya phetelo.[14] Tekanyo ya lebaka le le telele e akaretša: kaonafatšo ya ditlwaetšo tša temo,[15] go fokotša bohloki,kaonafatšo ya tlhwekišo ya sanitasi, le go matlafatšo ya basadi.[11]

Go be go na le dimilione tše 925 tša batho ba phepo ya tlase lefaseng ka 2010, koketšo ya dimilione tše 80 go tloga ka 1990.[16][17] Palo enngwe ya dibilione tša batho e akantšwe go hloka divitamine le dimenerale.[11] Ka 2010 phepo ya protine-enetši e be e lekanyeditšwe go ka ba e bakile mahu a 600,000 go tšwa go mahu a 883,000 ka 1990.[18] Thlaelo enngwe ya phepo, yeo e akaretšago tlhaelo ya iodine le tlhaelo ya madi ya anemia, e bakile mahu a mangwe a 84,000.[18] Phepo ya tlase go tloga ka 2010 e bakile 1.4% ya mengwaga ka moka ya maphelo a go se itekanele mmeleng.[11][19] Tee tharong ya mahu a bana go dumelwa gore a bakilwe ke phepo ya tlase; le ge go le bjalo; mahu a gona ga a hlaloswe bjalo.[5] Ka 2010 go be go akanyeditšwe palo ya mahu a dimi1ione tše 1.5 tša basadi le bana[20] le ge le e le gore batho ba bangwe ba akanya gore palo e ka ba e feta dimilione tše  3.[12] Palo tlaleletšo ya bana ba dimilione tše   165 tša kgodišompe ka baka la malwetši.[12] Phepo ya tlase e tlwalegile go dinaga tše di tšwetšwago pele.[21]

Ditšhupetšo[lokiša | edit source]

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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Facts for life (PDF) (4th ed. ed.). New York: United Nations Children's Fund. 2010. pp. 61 and 75. ISBN 978-92-806-4466-1. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Young, E.M. (2012). Food and development. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 36–38. ISBN 9781135999414. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Essentials of International Health. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. 2011. p. 194. ISBN 9781449667719. 
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  6. Konje, editor, Mala Arora ; co-editor, Justin C. (2007). Recurrent pregnancy loss (2nd ed. ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Bros. Medical Publishers. ISBN 9788184480061. 
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  9. Stoelting's anesthesia and co-existing disease (6th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier. 2012. p. 324. ISBN 9781455738120. 
  10. editors, Ronnie A. Rosenthal, Michael E. Zenilman, Mark R. Katlic, (2011). Principles and practice of geriatric surgery (2nd ed. ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 78. ISBN 9781441969996. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 "An update of ‘The Neglected Crisis of Undernutrition: Evidence for Action’" (PDF). www.gov.uk. Department for International Development. Oct 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 Bhutta, ZA; Das, JK; Rizvi, A; Gaffey, MF; Walker, N; Horton, S; Webb, P; Lartey, A; Black, RE; Lancet Nutrition Interventions Review, Group; Maternal and Child Nutrition Study, Group (Aug 3, 2013). "Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost?". Lancet 382 (9890): 452–77. PMID 23746776. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60996-4. 
  13. "World Food Programme, Cash and Vouchers for Food" (PDF). WFP.org. April 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Ann Ashworth (2003). Guidelines for the inpatient treatment of severely malnourished children. Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 9241546093. 
  15. Jonathan A. Foley, Navin Ramankutty, Kate A. Brauman, Emily S. Cassidy, James S. Gerber, Matt Johnston, Nathaniel D. Mueller, Christine O’Connell, Deepak K. Ray, Paul C. West, Christian Balzer, Elena M. Bennett, Stephen R. Carpenter, Jason Hill1, Chad Monfreda, Stephen Polasky1, Johan Rockström, John Sheehan, Stefan Siebert, David Tilman1, David P. M. Zaks (October 2011). "Solutions for a cultivated planet". Nature 478 (7369): 337–342. PMID 21993620. doi:10.1038/nature10452. 
  16. "Global hunger declining, but still unacceptably high International hunger targets difficult to reach" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. September 2010. Retrieved 1 July 2014. 
  17. Food; (FAO), Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008). The state of food insecurity in the world, 2008 : high food prices and food security : threats and opportunities. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). p. 2. ISBN 978-92-5-106049-0. FAO’s most recent estimates put the number of hungry [actually, malnourished] people at 923 million in 2007, an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990–92 base period. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K; et al. (December 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. PMID 23245604. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. 
  19. Murray, CJ (Dec 15, 2012). "Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.". Lancet 380 (9859): 2197–223. PMID 23245608. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61689-4. 
  20. Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD; et al. (December 2012). "A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2224–60. PMID 23245609. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8. 
  21. Liz Young (2002). World Hunger Routledge Introductions to Development. p. 20. ISBN 9781134774944.