Lephera

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Taboga go: Tšweletšo, fetleka
Lephera
LepheraMonna wa mengwaga ye 24 go tšwa Norway, o fetetšwe ke lephera, 1886
Monna wa mengwaga ye 24 go tšwa Norway, o fetetšwe ke lephera, 1886
Tlhopho le didirišwa tša ka ntle
ICD/CIM-10 A30 A30
ICD/CIM-9 030 030
OMIM 246300
DiseasesDB 8478
MedlinePlus 001347

Lephera, gape le tsebega ka bolwetši bja Hansen (HD), ke phetelo ya lebaka le le telele ya go bakwa ke pakteria ya Mycobacterium leprae[1] le Mycobacterium lepromatosis.[2] Mathomong, diphetelo ga di be le dišupo gomme go ba bjalo sebaka sa mengwaga ye 5 go ya go ye 20.[1] Dišupo tše di tšwelelago di akaretša digranuloma tša megalatšhika, mokgwa wa khemo, letlalo, le mahlo.[1] Se se ka baka go palelwa ke go kwa bohloko le go felelwa ke ditho tša go šoma kudu ka lebaka la go gobala leboelela goba phetelo ka lebaka la dintho tša go se lemogwe. [3] Go felelwa ke maatla le go se bone gabotse go ka tšwelela.[3]

Lephera le phatlalatšwa magareng ga batho. Go dumelwa gore le ka tšwelela ka segohlola goba go kopana le seela sa ka nkong ya motho yoo a fetetšwego. [4] Lephera gantši le tšwelela magareng ga bahloki gape go dumelwa gore le fetetšwa ka marothi a mokgwa wa khemo. [3] Kgatlhanong le tumelo yeo e tlwaelegilego, ga le fetetšwe kudu. [3] Mehuta ye mebedi ya bolwetši e theilwe ka palo ya dipakteria tše di lego gona: paucibacillary le multibacillary.[3] Mehuta ye mebedi e fapana ka palo ya mmala wa go se be botse, dipatso tše di lego letlalong tša go hwa bogašu, ka paucibacillary ya go ba le tše hlano goba tše nnyane le multibacillary ya go feta tše hlano.[3] Phekolo e kgonthišeditšwe ka go hwetša esiti-ya lebelo ya bacilli ka biopsy ya letlalo goba go lekola DNA ka go diriša ketwana ya phetogo ya polymerase.[3]

Lephera le a alafega ka kalafi yeo e tsebegago ka multidrug therapy (MDT).[1] Kalafi ya lephera la paucibacillary e ka dikalafi tša dapsone le rifampicin sebaka sa dikgwedi tše tshela.[3] Kalafi ya lephera la multibacillary e na le rifampicin, dapsone, le clofazimine sebaka sa dikgwedi tše 12.[3] Dikalafi tše di fiwa mphiwafela ke ba Mokgatlo wa Maphelo wa Lefase.[1] Mehuta ye mengwe ya di-antibiotiki e ka dirišwa.[3] Ka 2012 lefaseng ka bophara, palo ya dikgetsi tša bolwetši bja kalafi ya go se fole bja lephera e be e le 189,000 palo ya ka fase ga dimilione tše 5.2 million mengwageng ya bo-1980.[1][5][6] Palo e mpsha ya dikgetsi e be e le 230,000.[1] Dikgetsi tše mpsha di tšweletše dinageng tše 16, gomme India e balwa goba le palo ya go feta palogare.[1][3] Mengwaga ye 20 ya go feta, palo ya dimilione tše 16 tša batho lefaseng ka bophara ba alafilwe lephera mme ba fodile. [1] Palo ya dikgetsi tša go feta 200 di begwa ngwaga ka ngwaga ka United States.[7]

Lephera le amile batho sebaka sa diketekete tša mengwaga.[3] Bolwetši bjo bo hweditše leina la lona go tšwa go lentšu la se-Latinla lepra, leo le tlhalošago gore "legapi", mola leina la "bolwetši bja Hansen" le theilwe ka morago ka ngaka Gerhard Armauer Hansen.[3] Go aroganya batho ka go ba bea ka dikoloni tša lephera go sa ntše go sa tšwelela mafelong a mangwe bjalo ka India,[8] Tšhaena,[9] le Afrika.[10] Le ge go le bjale, dikoloni tše dintši di tswaletšwe ka ge lephera le se sa fetela kudu. [10] Mmamodula wa selegae o amantšwe le lephera ka histori e ntši, gomme se se tšwelapele gore batho ba bege ka bo bona le go hwetša kalafo ya ka pela. [1] Batho ba bangwe ba nagana gore lentšu le lephera le kweša bohloko, gomme ba rata ge go ka dirišwa mmolelwana "batho ba go fetelwa ke lephera".[11] Letšatši la Lephera la Lefase le thomilwe ka 1954 go phatlalatša tsebo go bao ba angwago ke lephera.[12]

Ditšhupetšo[lokiša | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 "Leprosy Fact sheet N°101". World Health Organization. Jan 2014. 
  2. "New Leprosy Bacterium: Scientists Use Genetic Fingerprint To Nail 'Killing Organism'". ScienceDaily. 2008-11-28. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Suzuki K, Akama T, Kawashima A, Yoshihara A, Yotsu RR, Ishii N (February 2012). "Current status of leprosy: epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives.". The Journal of dermatology 39 (2): 121–9. PMID 21973237. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2011.01370.x. 
  4. "Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Transmission". cdc.gov. April 29, 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  5. "Global leprosy situation, 2012". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 87 (34): 317–28. August 2012. PMID 22919737. 
  6. Rodrigues LC, Lockwood DNj (June 2011). "Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps.". The Lancet infectious diseases 11 (6): 464–70. PMID 21616456. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70006-8. 
  7. "Hansen's Disease Data & Statistics". Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  8. Walsh F (2007-03-31). "The hidden suffering of India's lepers". BBC News. 
  9. Lyn TE (2006-09-13). "Ignorance breeds leper colonies in China". Independat News & Media. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Byrne, Joseph P. (2008). Encyclopedia of pestilence, pandemics, and plagues. Westport, Conn.[u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 351. ISBN 9780313341021. 
  11. editors, Enrico Nunzi, Cesare Massone, (2012). Leprosy a practical guide. Milan: Springer. p. 326. ISBN 9788847023765. 
  12. McMenamin, Dorothy (2011). Leprosy and stigma in the South Pacific : a region-by-region history with first person accounts. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 17. ISBN 9780786463237.