Boithomelo bja mokoti

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Sethalwa sa boithomelo bja mokoti le pane ya boithomelo le sešireletšo.[1]

Boithomelo bja mokoti goba thoilete ya mokoti ke mohuta wa thoilete ya go kgoboketša mantle a batho ka mokoting. Di didirišwa ntle le meetse goba go dirišwa litara e tee goba tše pedi tša meetse go sepetša mantle.[2] Ge di agilwe le go hlokomelwa botse di ka fokotša phatlalatšo ya malwetši ka go fokotša palo ya mantle tikologong go tšwa go tshenyo ya phatlalala.[3][4] Se se fokotša phetetšo ya dibaerase tša dipatotšene magareng ga mantle le dijo ka tshepetšo ya dintšhi.[3] Dibaerase tše tša dipatotšene ke dihlodi tše kgolo tša phetetšo ya taerea le phetetšo ya diboko tša ka teng.[4] Phetetšo ya taerea e bakile mahu a palo ya dimilione tše 0.7 tša bana ba mengwaga ya ka fase ga ye mehlano ka 2011 gomme dimilione tše 250 di lahlegetšwe ke matšatši a sekolo. [4][5] Boithomelo bja mekoti ke mokgwatšhomišo wa theko ya tlase wa go kgaogantšha mantle le batho.[3]

Boithomelo bja mokoti ka kakaretšo bo na le dikarolo tše tharo tše kgolo: mokoti, lebato goba letlapa la go ba le mokoti, le sešireletšo.[2] Mokoti gantši o epiwa ka bodiba bja dimetara  tše 3 (dikgato tše 10) le metara o 1 wa go putlaganya(dikgato tše 3.2).[2] Mokgatlo wa tša Maphelo wa Lefase o eletša gore di agwe kgolenyana le dintlo go lekanyetša pharologanyo ya phihlelo ya kgauswi le monkgo. [3] Bokgole bja meetse a go epiwa fase lemeetse a go hwetšagala bokagodimo bo swanetše go ba bjo bogolo ka moo go ka kgonagalago go fokotša kotsi ya tšhilafatšo. Mokoti wo o lego letlapeng goba lebatong ga wa swanela go ba le bogolo bja go feta disentimetara tše 25 (dinoko tše 9.8) go thibela gore bana ba se wele ka gare ga mokoti. Lesedi le swanetše go thibelwa gore le se tsene ka mokoting go fokotša phihlelelo ya dintšhi. Se se ka nyaka tirišo ya sekhurumelo go tswalela mokoti lebatong ge e sa dirišwe.[3] Ge mokoti o tletše go fihla go dimetara tše 0.5 (dikgato tše 1.6) go fihla godimo, o swanetše go hlwekišwa ka go ntšha mantle goba mokoti o mongwe o swanetše go agwa gomme sešireletšo se tlošwe goba boithomelo bo agwe lefelong le lengwe[6] Taolo ya go tloša seretse sa mantle ka mokoting e tloga e hlakahlakane. Go ba le dikotsi tša tikologo le maphelo ge e sa sepetšwe botse.

Boithomelo bja mokoti bjo bo tlwaelegilego bo ka kaonafatšwa ka mekgwa e mentši. Mokgwa o mongwe o akaretša go tsenya phaepe ya go tsenya moya ka gare ga mokoti godimo ga moago. Se se kaonafatša tshepetšo ya moya le phokotšo ya monkgo wa thoilete. Gape e ka fokotša dintšhi ge bogodimo bja phaephe bo tswaletšwe ka polastiki (gantši ya go dirwa ka galase ya faeba). Go mehuta ye ya dithoilete sekhurumelo ga se hlokege go ka dirišwa go pipa mokoti lebatong.[6] Kaonafatšo enngwe e ka akaretša go aga lebato ka mokgwa woo diela di ka tsenago ka mokoting gomme bogodimo bja mokoti bo agwe ka ditena le semente go kaonafatša maatlafatšo.[2][6]

Go tloga ka 2013 boithomelo bja mekoti bo akanyeditšwe go dirišwa ke palo ya batho ba dibilione tše 1.77.[7] Se gantši se tšwelela go mafase a tšwetšwago pele gape le metse selegae lemafelo a lešokeng. Ka 2011 batho ba dibilione tše 2.5 ga se ba kgone go ba le phihlelelo ya thoilete ya maleba gomme dibilione di feditše di diriša lebala go bjalo ka boithomelo tikologong yeo ba lego go yona.[8] Borwa bja Asia le Sub-Saharan Afrika go na le phihlelelo ya bofokodi ya dithoilete.[8] Go dinaga tše di tšwetšwago pele theko ya thoilete ya mokoti e bonolo e magareng ga 25 le 60 ya USD.[9] Theko ya tlhokomelo ya go ya go ile e magareng ga 1.5 le 4 ya USD go motho yo mongwe le yo mongwe ngwaga ka ngwaga gape gantši se ga se elwe hloko. [10] Go dikarolo tše dingwe tša metse magaeng India go dirilwe tlhabano ya "Ge go se na Thoilete, Go ka se be le Monyadiwa" gomme e dirišwa go tlhohleletša basadi gore ba gane go nyalwa ke banna bao ba se nago thoilete.[11][12]

Ditšhupetšo[lokiša | edit source]

  1. WEDC. Latrine slabs: an engineer’s guide, WEDC Guide 005 (PDF). Water, Engineering and Development Centre The John Pickford Building School of Civil and Building Engineering Loughborough University. p. 22. ISBN 978 1 84380 143 6. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Tilley, E., Ulrich, L., Lüthi, C., Reymond, Ph. and Zurbrügg, C. (2014). Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (2 ed.). Dübendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag). ISBN 9783906484570. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Simple pit latrine (fact sheet 3.4)". who.int. 1996. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Call to action on sanitation" (pdf). United Nations. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  5. Walker, CL; Rudan, I; Liu, L; Nair, H; Theodoratou, E; Bhutta, ZA; O'Brien, KL; Campbell, H; Black, RE (Apr 20, 2013). "Global burden of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea.". Lancet 381 (9875): 1405–16. PMID 23582727. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60222-6. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 François Brikké (2003). Linking technology choice with operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation (PDF). World Health Organization. p. 108. ISBN 9241562153. 
  7. Graham, JP; Polizzotto, ML (May 2013). "Pit latrines and their impacts on groundwater quality: a systematic review.". Environmental health perspectives 121 (5): 521–30. PMID 23518813. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206028. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Progress on sanitation and drinking-water - 2014 update. (pdf). WHO. 2014. pp. 16–20. ISBN 9789241507240. 
  9. Selendy, Janine M. H. (2011). Water and sanitation-related diseases and the environment challenges, interventions, and preventive measures. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 25. ISBN 9781118148600. 
  10. Sanitation and Hygiene in Africa Where Do We Stand?. Intl Water Assn. 2013. p. 161. ISBN 9781780405414. 
  11. Global Problems, Smart Solutions: Costs and Benefits. Cambridge University Press. 2013. p. 623. ISBN 9781107435247. 
  12. Stopnitzky, Yaniv (12 December 2011). "Haryana's scarce women tell potential suitors: "No loo, no I do"". Development Impact. Blog of World Bank. Retrieved 17 November 2014.